A4 paper: ISO standard paper size 210 x 297mm or 8.3 x 11.7″. The common paper size used outside the US in place of 8.5 x 11.
Adhesive binding (AB): Leaves are attached by fanning the spine one way and applying adhesive then fanning the opposite direction and applying adhesive. A cloth spine lining is added. Sometimes called double fan adhesive binding.
Adhesive recase (AR): The original sewing or adhesive is retained and new endpapers are tipped on.
Application: A computer program designed for a particular use, such as a word processor or page layout application, i.e. Microsoft Word or Quark Xpress.
basis weight: Basis or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that particular paper grade.
bench sew (BS): Signatures are sewn together by hand.
binding: Process of fastening papers together. There are several methods of binding.
binding edge: The edge of a text block along which the leaves of a text block are attached by sewing, adhesive binding, or another method.
binding margin: The distance between the binding edge of a printed page and the printed area.
bitmap: A grid of printed dots or pixels generated by computer to represent images and type.
bleed: The printed image that extends beyond the trim edge of a sheet or page. A bleed may occur on any edge including the head, front, foot and/or gutter of a page.
blend: A smooth transition between two colors, also known as a graduated tint.
blind emboss A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.
board: A compressed paper product used in making the case.
bulk: A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight. Also the term of the thickness of a text block.
C1S and C2S: Acronyms for Coated One Side and Coated Two Sides paper stock.
case bound: A hardcover or hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl, leather or a heavy printed stock.
case flush bottom (CFB): The text block is cased in flush with the bottom of the case rather than centered in the case.
cast coated: Coated paper with a very high gloss enamel finish
clipart: Graphics saved in ready-to-use computer files. these are normally vector illustrations and not photographic images.
clipping path: An outline, embedded into the file, that tells an application which areas of a picture should be considered transparent.
CMYK: Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the 4 process colors, which combined together in varying proportions can be made to produce the full color spectrum. Digital files in RGB should be converted to CMYK prior to printing.
cold color: Any color that is toward the blue side of the color spectrum.
collating: Gathering together sheets of paper or signatures from a book, magazine or brochure and placing them into the correct order. Also called assembling.
color balance: The relative amounts of process colors used to reproduce an image, either digitally or when printed on a press.
color separation: Process by which a continuous tone color image is separated into the four process colors (CMYK) for print production.
crease: To mechanically press a rule into heavy paper or board to enable it to be folded without cracking.
creep: Phenomenon when middle pages of a folded section extend slightly beyond the outside pages.
crop: To trim the edges of a picture or page to make change the size of make it fit or remove unwanted areas.
crop marks: Lines near the margins of artwork or photos indicating where to trim, perforate or fold.
CTP: Abbreviation of computer-to-plate; a process of printing directly from a computer onto the plate used by a printing press.
cyan: One of the four process colors.
deboss: Image pressed into paper so it lies below the surface.
density: The degree of darkness of light absorption or opacity of printed images.
die-cutting: Process of using sharp metal rules on a wooden block to cut out specialised shapes such as pocket folders or unusual shaped flyers etc.
double-fan adhesive: Binding method fanning loose sheets one direction across adhesive than back the other to insure adhesive gets between pages.
dpi: A measure of the quality of an image from a scanner or output resolution of a printer. The more dots per inch, the higher the quality will be but the larger the file size the slower it will process.
dummy: A mock-up made to resemble the final printed product which uses the proposed grade, weight, finish and color of paper.
dust jacket: The paper cover sometimes called the “dust cover” or “jacket”of a hardbound book.
embed fonts: Fonts used in one application or on one computer to prepare documents may not be available on another computer or printer. Fonts must be embedded to make sure the document looks the same in print and on other computers as was designed.
embossing: A process performed after printing to stamp a raised (or depressed) image into the surface of paper, using engraved metal embossing dies, extreme pressure, and heat. embossing styles include blind, deboss and foil-embossed.
endpaper (flysheet, endsheet): A 2 or 3 part paper structure that is attached to the text block by thread or adhesive. The case is glued to the outer sheets to complete the volume.
EPS: An acronym for Encapsulated PostScript, a computer file format widely used by the printing and graphics industries.
file format: The system by which data is held in a particular type of computer file
finish: The surface quality of a paper such as linen, vellum, etc.
flat back: A text block that has not been rounded and backed.
flush: To align, to be even with. (flush right to a margin for example).
foil stamping: A metallic finish applied by special die stamping equipment. Requires a heated die.
font: One of a range of styles/typefaces in which lettering can be produced during the type setting stage, e.g. Times New Roman, 10pt.
font matching: A sometimes undesirable process used when a chosen font is not available, the closest possible match is made by the printer, sometimes causing reflow of the text or other errors, and incorrect format.
fore edge: The edge opposite from and parallel to it’s binding edge (spine).
format: Size, shape and overall style of layout or printed project.
four-color process: Reproduction of full-color photographs or art with the four basic colors of ink (cyan, magenta, yellow, black).
full color: Or “four color process” using the four basic printing colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
gathering: Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence. Also called collating.
gloss text: Standard glossy paper stock. The shiny finish provides an excellent opaque base for rich process color printing.
grain: Paper fibers lie in a similar direction in a sheet of paper. This direction is called the grain. Printing is usually done so that if folding or binding is required, the fold is done parallel to the grain.
graphic covers: These are covers graphically designed by customer (we can draft or alter, add items to file for additional fee). We laminate using our standard linen finish; but can also do smooth gloss finish.
graphics file: General term used for a computer file containing a picture: photographic image, illustration etc.
greyscale: Shades of grey ranging from black to white; in printing, greyscale uses only a black halftone plate.
gsm: Paper weight is measured in grams per square metre.
gutter: Line or fold at which facing pages meet.
halftone: Picture with varying shades of tone created by varying size dots. The effect is achieved by varying the dot size and the number of dots per square inch.
head: The top edge of a text block.
head margin: The white space above the first line on a page.
head & tail band: A narrow cloth strip with a colored band that is glued to the spine head and tail before the text block is cased in.
hickey: Spot or imperfection in printing.
hot melt: An adhesive used in some binding processes, which requires heat for application.
house sheet: General use paper ordered in large quantities and kept in stock by a printer.
hue: The main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors.
image area: Portion of paper where ink appears.
import: To bring a picture or text file into and application ready for editing or design work.
imposition: Positioning pages in a form that is press-ready so that they will be in the correct numerical sequence after cutting or folding.
inlay (back strip): A flexible paper strip used to stiffen the spine of a case. This may also be a stick (board) inlay.
ISBN: An ISBN (International Standard Book Number) is a controlled, 10 or 13 digit identification number allowing publishers, libraries, and book dealers to locate books. For more information on the history and purpose of ISBN’s, see http://www.isbn.org.
jacket: The paper cover sometimes called the “dust cover” of a hardbound book.
jog: To shake a stack of papers, either on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up. Also referred to as knocking-up.
joint: The grooves that run head to tail on the outside of the case between the spine and boards.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Electronic Group. a common standard for compressing image data. This is a widely used format for image/photographic files.
justified: Text which is flush to left or right margins, or both.
kerning: The adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance.
knockout: A shape or object printed by eliminating (knocking out) all background colors.
lamination: A thin film coating which is applied to the paper or board to give a more glossy or matt appearance, providing scuff and moisture resistance and extended use.
layout file: The file created by computer application software which contains all the imported elements and where all the design and layout of a document are performed.
leaf: A single sheet of paper.
leaf attachment (fastening method): The means by which leaves of a text block are attached, one to another. At Book Partners this would be either by thread or adhesive.
letter size: Standard US paper size is 8.5 x 11. Outside the US the standard size is A4 or 8.3 x 11.7
line copy: Copy which can be reproduced without using halftones.
lining: Woven cloth used to reinforce spines or to hold leaves together after adhesive binding.
magenta: One of the four process colors, also known as red.
make-ready: The work associated with the set-up of printing equipment before running a job.
matt: A non glossy finish.
metal plate: A metal sheet with a specially coated ’emulsion’ on its surface which when exposed through a film mask or by CTP process will produce an image. In offset printing the plate is loaded onto printing press and it then reproduces this image using inks onto the paper.
micrometer: Instrument used for measuring the thickness of paper.
moiré pattern: An undesirable grid-like or halftone pattern caused by the misalignment of dots on a printed document. This can occur when printing or sometimes when scanning from pre-printed material. It can also occur from overprinting half tone screens at incorrect angles.
notch binding (NB): The spine is notched then leaves are attached by fanning the spine one way and applying adhesive then fanning the opposite direction and applying adhesive. A thick adhesive is used to fill the notches and a cloth spine lining is added.
notching: Small notches are made in the spine before gluing approximately 1/16 inch deep and 5/16 inch apart. Notching lengthens the spine and increases the strength of the binding.
offset printing: A method in which the plate or cylinder transfers an ink image to an offset or transfer roller or blanket, which then transfers the image to stock.
opacity: Quality of paper that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.
over-run: Copies printed in excess of the quantity specified in the order.
oversew (OS): Leaves are attached by sewing small sections together in a machine. This requires 5/8 inch binding margins because the sewing will invade the margin ¼ inch.
page count: Total number of pages, including blanks and printed pages without numbers.
panel Lines: A decorative line stamped on the spine usually at the top and bottom but can be multiple locations. Options are single panel lines or double panel lines.
Pantone® colors: Premixed ink colors that are often specified for printing as a spot color. Can be matched using CMYK but will not be exactly the same color as its Pantone color counterpart.
paste down: The outer sheets of an endpaper that will be glued to the case.
perfect binding: A bookbinding method in which pages are glued directly to the cover using a flexible adhesive. Used primarily for paperback books.
point: A measurement for the size of type, distance between lines and thickness of rules. One point equals one seventy-second of an inch (0.3515mm). ie..10pt, 12pt
process color: Color specified in percentages of cyan, magenta, yellow and black. when superimposed during printing the four color printing process, their separate plates can recreate millions of different colors.
process blue / process red / process yellow / process black: Alternate names for the CMYK colors
proof: A representation of the finished print produced for customer inspection for errors to be corrected prior to mass printing.
quotation: Cost and/or offer to produce a job for a specific price calculated from specifications provided by the customer.
registration marks: Crosses or other marks placed on artwork which ensure perfect alignment (‘registration’). Also known as trim or crop marks.
resolution: the number of dots per inch (dpi) in a computer-processed document. the level of detail retained by a printed document increases with higher resolution. ppi (pixels per inch) for an image.
reversed-out: Type appearing white on a black or color background, either a solid or a tint.
RGB: An acronym for red, green and blue. RGB is a color model used for computer monitors and color video output systems. Color separations for litho printing can not be made directly from RGB files and need to be converted to CMYK first if digital printing.
round & back: The complete process of rounding the spine and backing the spine.
saddle stitch/saddle sew: A binding process in which a pamphlet or booklet is stapled through the middle fold of its sheets using metal wires and a lock stitch.
sample: A representation of the finished print produced for customer inspection for errors to be corrected prior to mass printing.
scanning: The process of converting a hard copy into digital data ready for editing and design. the quality of the scan is dependent on the quality of the original, the scanning equipment and software as well as the experience of the operator!
score: A pressed mark in a sheet of paper or card to make folding cleaner and easier.
self-cover: The paper used inside a booklet is the same as that used for the cover and is generally printed on the same press run. folded one, two, three, or four times to make a section.
shoulder (joint): The shoulder is formed when a text block is backed. The outermost leaves on each side of the text block are bent outward at a 45-degree angle along the binding edge to accommodate the boards.
side sew: The binding method of sewing completely through the text block along the binding edge.
signature: A printed sheet with multiple pages that is folded so that the pages are in their proper numbered sequence, as in a book.
Singer Sew (SS): Leaves attached by sewing down through the spine using a locking stitch. There is a spine thickness limitation of ½ inch.
Smyth Sew: Method of binding sewing through the folds of signatures to make a text block.
solid: An area on the page which is completely covered by the ink.
spine (backbone): The surface of a volume that faces outward when a book sits on a shelf. This is opposite of the fore edge.
spread: Two or more adjoining pages that would appear in view on sheet.
stock: A term for the material any project is printed onto.
Summit™: A cover material that is used in place of buckran, which is no longer being made. It is a 13 mil, heavily-coated, nylon reinforced paper. The tear strength and abrasion resistance of Summit™ exceeds all other
non-woven materials and meets or exceeds all woven materials other than F grade buckram.
tail: The bottom edge of a text block.
text block: A gathering of printed or written leaves (pages) that may be or have been bound.
TIFF: Acronym for Tagged Image File Format. TIFF (.TIF) pictures can be black-and-white line art, greyscale or color. This is a widely used format for image/photographic files but is unsuitable for text unless its is created at a very hi-resolution.
tint: An area of tone made by a pattern of dots, which lightens the apparent color of the ink with which it is printed.
tip in: A thin line of adhesive applied along the edge of a leaf (Usually along the binding edge).
trapping: A slight overlapping between two touching colors that prevents gaps from appearing along the edges of an object because of misalignment or movement on the printing press.
trim marks: Marks placed on the printed sheet to indicate where cuts should be made.
turn in: Cover material that is turned over the outer edges of the boards and inlay.
turnaround time: Amount of time needed to complete a project. Also called “turn” time.
Ultrabind (UB): Automated adhesive binding machine. The machine mills and notches the spine, then applies adhesive to the spine and finishes by applying a cloth lining to the spine.
up: A term used to describe how many similar pieces can be printed on a larger sheet; 2-up, 4-up, etc.
UV varnish: A liquid laminate that is bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
variable data printing: Is a form of on-demand printing in which elements (such as text, graphics, photographs, etc) can be changed from one printed piece to the next, without stopping or slowing down the press, using information from a database.
warm color: A color with a reddish tone rather than a blue tone. Browns, oranges, reds, and yellows are generally considered to be “warm” colors.
web press: A printing press that prints on rolls of paper passed through the press in one continuous piece, as opposed to individual sheets of paper.
whipstitch: Stitching through holes punched along the binding edge of a previous oversewn text block. A method used for recase leaf attachment.
wire-o binding: A method of wire binding books along the binding edge that will allow the book to lay flat.
yellow: One of the four process colors of ink, or CMYK. The Y is for yellow.
zip file: Zipping a file compresses one or more files into a smaller archive. It takes up less hard drive space and less time to transfer across a network or the internet.